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Polymer structure mechanical property comparison

Mechnical studies that have been performed on electrospun fibers include single nanofiber tensile test, single nanofiber bend test, nanofiber bundles and tensile testing of electrospun membrane. The mechanical properties of polymers are affected by factors such as molecular weight, tacticity, crystallinity, strain drawing and others thus their value may spread over a relatively wide range. This is especially so for single nanofiber when comparing with conventional fiber spinning techniques. The table below is a list of the mechanical property of fibrous structures made out of electrospun fiber and other conventional fiber spinning techniques.

Single Fiber

Polylactide acid fiber
Process Fiber diameter Molecular weight Tensile strength (MPa) Tensile modulus (GPa) Reference
Electrospinning
Take-up velocity: 63 m/min
890 nm Mw 300,000 89 1.0 Inai et al 2005
Electrospinning
Take-up velocity: 630 m/min
610 nm Mw 300,000 183 2.9 Inai et al 2005
Melt spinning 298 - 340 um Mn 304,700 60.7 - 71.9 2.02 - 2.24 Yuan et al 2001
Melt spinning 269 - 339 um Mn 262,800 50.6 - 53.2 1.81 - 2.15 Yuan et al 2001
Melt spinning and hot drawing
Draw ratio: ~4.7
146 - 151 um Mn 494,600 412 - 535 4.58 - 5.22 Yuan et al 2001
Melt spinning and hot drawing
Draw ratio: 4.66 - 5.5
134 - 145 um Mn 304,700 332 - 484 3.88 - 4.96 Yuan et al 2001
Melt spinning and hot drawing
Draw ratio: 5.11 - 5.89
119 - 149 um Mn 262,800 365 - 415 4.12 - 4.46 Yuan et al 2001
Melt spinning Die exit diameter: 1 mm Mn 146,800 86.91 1.87 Zhang et al 2008
Melt spinning and hot drawing
Draw ratio: 6
Die exit diameter: 1 mm Mn 146,800 382.76 4.36 Zhang et al 2008
Melt spinning and hot drawing
Draw ratio: 5
Die exit diameter: 0.25 mm Mw 280,000 530 9.3 Penning et al 1993

 

Polyacrylonitrile fiber
Process Fiber diameter Molecular weight Tensile strength (MPa) Tensile modulus (GPa) Reference
Electrospinning 375 - 800 nm Mw 150,000 22 0.815 Ren 2013
Electrospinning 2.8 um to 100 nm Mw 150,000 15 to 1750 (True strength) 0.36 to 48 Papkov et al 2013

 

Nylon fiber
Process Fiber diameter Molecular weight Tensile strength (MPa) Tensile modulus (GPa) Reference
Electrospinning
As spun
800 nm Not indicated 304 0.9 Bazbouz et al 2010
Melt spinning and cold air attenuation 179 um Not indicated 79.7 Not indicated Jia 2010
Melt spinning and cold air attenuation 83 um Not indicated 39.6 Not indicated Jia 2010
Melt spinning and cold air attenuation 50 um Not indicated 74.6 Not indicated Jia 2010
Melt spinning and cold air attenuation 22 um Not indicated 86.7 Not indicated Jia 2010
Melt spinning and cold air attenuation 13 um Not indicated 199.2 Not indicated Jia 2010
Melt spinning and cold air attenuation 10 um Not indicated 216.7 1.2 Jia 2010

 

Yarn

Polyacrylonitrile
Process Filament diameter Molecular weight Ultimate Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation at break (%) Reference
Electrospinning 474 nm 100,000 g/mol 54.57 60.81 Dabirian et al 2009
Electrospinning 1300 nm Not specified 45 88.6 Wang et al 2008
Electrospinning 410 nm Mw: 100,000 g/mol
Mn: 70,000 g/mol
53 75.8 Dabirian et al 2011
Centrifugal Electrospinning 440 nm Mw = 100,000 g/mol and Mn = 70,000 g/mol 112 60 Dabirian et al 2011
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 100%
Not specified Not specified 146 12.9 Wang et al 2008
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 200%
Not specified Not specified 235 12.6 Wang et al 2008
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 300%
600 nm Not specified 372 12.0 Wang et al 2008
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 100%
Denier (g/900m): 42
Not specified Mn 112,000 g/mol 307 13 Moon et al 2009
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 55%
Denier (g/900m):120
Not specified Mn 112,000 g/mol 294 13.5 Moon et al 2009
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 85% Denier (g/900m): 97
Not specified Mn 112,000 g/mol 323 13.3 Moon et al 2009
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 100% Denier (g/900m): 127
Not specified Mn 112,000 g/mol 325 15.1 Moon et al 2009
Electrospinning
As spun
431 nm Mn 112,000 g/mol 99 Not specified Moon et al 2009
Electrospinning
Draw ratio: 100%
Not specified Mn 112,000 g/mol 307 13 Moon et al 2009
Wet spun fiber
Draw ratio: 300%
Not specified Not specified 392 13.0 Wang et al 2008

 

Carbon
Process Fiber diameter Ultimate Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation at break (%) Reference
Electrospinning,
Precursor: PAN
Not specified 986 Not specified Moon et al 2009
Commercial carbon fiber tows
IMS from Toho Tenax
Precursor: PAN
Not specified 5600 1.9 Safarova et al 2010
Commercial carbon fiber tows
T700 from Toray
Precursor: PAN
Not specified 2550 1.7 Safarova et al 2010
Published date: 9 June 2013
Last updated: 26 Feb 2014

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