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Electrospun Polymer Material

This list contains polymers that have been shown to be electrospinnable as a stand alone material. It does not include blended polymer system as most non-electrospinnable material can be blended with an electrospinnable material to form nanofibers.

Polymer Solvent Concentration References Category
Chitin from crab shells [degree of deacetylation(DD): 9%] 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 3.1% (w/v) Schiffman et al 2009 Natural Polymer
Collagen Type I 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 0.08 g/ml Matthews et al 2002 Natural Polymer
Collagen Type I 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 0.18 g/ml Zeugolis et al 2008 Natural Polymer
Collagen Type I PBS (20x) : ethanol (1:1) v/v 16 wt% Dong et al 2009 Natural Polymer
Collagen Type III 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 0.04 g/ml Matthews et al 2002 Natural Polymer
Bombyx mori silk fibroin Formic acid 9-12 wt% Ayutsede et al 2005 Natural Polymer
Fibrinogen Fraction I 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 0.083 g/ml Wnek et al 2003 Natural Polymer
Gelatin Type A 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 10-12.5% Zhang et al 2005 Natural Polymer
Hemoglobin 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 150 mg/mL Barnes et al 2006 Natural Polymer
Chitosan Mv 210,000; 0.78 deacetylation 70% Trifluoroacetic acid, 30% Methylene Chloride 8 wt% Ohkawat et al 2004 Natural Polymer
Carboxylmethyl Chitosan, degree of substitution = 0.65 70% Trifluoroacetic acid, 30% Methylene Chloride 5% w/v Sohofi N et al 2014 Natural Polymer
Hyaluronic Acid NH4OH:N,N-dimethyl formamide (2:1) 1.5 w/v % Brenner E K 2009 Natural Polymer
Lecithin 70% Chloroform, 30% N,N Dimethylformamide 35 wt% McKee al 2006 Natural Polymer
Myoglobin 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 250 mg/ml Barnes et al 2006 Natural Polymer
Pullulan water 20 wt% Fuenmayor et al 2013 Natural Polymer
Starch (Natural Tapioca) water 4.5 wt% Sutjarittangtham et al 2014 Natural Polymer
Tropoelastin (Synthetic Human Elastin without domain 26A) 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 20% w/v Rnjak-Kovacina 2011 Natural Polymer
Wheat gluten 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 10 wt% Woerdeman et al 2005 Natural Polymer
Zein 70% v/v aqueous ethanol 25 wt% Cai 2013 Natural Polymer
DegraPol® (degradable block polyesterurethane) Chloroform 30 wt% Riboldi et al 2005 Biodegradable polymer
Pellethane 2363-80A (degradable polyetherurethane) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol 5% (w/w) Grasl et al 2010 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(3- hydroxybutyrate) Chloroform 10% wt/vol Sombatmankhong et al 2006 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(3 - hydroxybutyrate -co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Chloroform 20% wt Choi et al 2004 Biodegradable polymer
Poly[(alanino ethylester)0.67 (glycino ethyl ester)0.33 phosphazene] Tetrahydroduran 10% (w/v) Lin et al 2010 Biodegradable polymer
Polycaprolactone Mn 80 000 90% chloroform / 10% methanol 0.12 g/ml Teo and Ramakrishna 2005 Biodegradable polymer
Polydioxanone (PDS II from Ethicon, Inc.) 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 42 mg/ml Boland et al 2005 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(D,L-lactide -co - trimethylene carbonate) Dichloromethane: N,N, dimethyl formamide (70:30 v/v) 20% w/v Bao et al 2014 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol), Mw = 51 kDa Tetrahydrofuran Not stated Cui et al 2008 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(γ-stearyl-L-glutamate) Chloroform 19 wt% Shao et al 2009 Biodegradable polymer
Polyethylene-co-vinyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol/water (80:20) 4.5 wt% Xu 2012 Biodegradable polymer
Polyethylene glycol, 50 kDa water 10 wt% Cai et al 2013 Biodegradable polymer
Polyglycolide 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol 10% wt/vol Dong et al 2010 Biodegradable polymer
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane - polycaprolactone - poly(carbonate-urea) urethane dimethylacetamide 20% w/w Gupta et al 2007 Biodegradable polymer
Poly-L-lactide 1.09 dL 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol 15% w/v Koh et al 2010 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-(glycolic acid), 70:30 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol 35% w/v Koh et al 2010 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-(caprolactone), 70:30 Mw 150 kDa N,N dimethyl formamide : dichloromethane (70:30 wt:wt) 10 wt% He et al 2009 Biodegradable polymer
Poly(propylene carbonate), Mw 699 000 g/mol Chloroform 6.5 wt% Wang et al 2011 Biodegradable polymer
Cellulose Acetate trifluoroacetic acid 8 wt% Zhou et al 2011 Industrial polymer
Epoxy 609 Butanone + propylene glycol monomethyl ether (3:1, v/v) 29 wt% Liu et al 2006 Industrial polymer
Ethylene-propylene-diene with 5-ethylidene-2-norborene as a diene tetrahydrofuran and cyclohexane Not specified Liu et al 2010 Industrial polymer
Nylon 11, density 1.026 g/cc Formic acid 10 wt% Dhanalakshmi et al 2008 Industrial polymer
Nylon 6, 6 Formic acid 10 wt% Schreuder-Gibson et al 2002 Industrial polymer
Nylon 6,66,1010 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol 11 wt% Li et al 2006 Industrial polymer
Phenoxy, (Polyhydroxyether of bisphenol A), Mw 40,000 Dimethylformamide (DMF) / tetrahydrofuran (THF), 30/70 20 wt% Magniez et al 2011 Industrial polymer
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Ethanol 5.2 wt% Zhang 2011 Industrial polymer
Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide), Mw 100,000 N,N-dimethylformamide 7 wt% Sihn et al 2008 Industrial polymer
Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) cyclohexane, acetone, and N-N-dimethylformamide (80/10/10 by weight), heat to 70 degrees Celsius 4 wt% Patel et al 2012 Industrial polymer
Polyacrylic acid (PAA)
250,000 g/mol
Deionized water 6 wt% Atchison et al 2012 Industrial polymer
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
Mw 150,000
N,N-dimethylformamide 8% w/w Barhate et al 2006 Industrial polymer
Poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
Mw 100,000-110,000 g/mol
N,N-dimethylformamide Not specified Huang et al 2008 Industrial polymer
Poly(acrylonitrile-co-glycidyl methacrylate)
Mn, 98,053 g/mol
N,N-dimethylformamide 16 wt% Dai 2011 Industrial polymer
Polyamic acid (precursor to polyimide) N,N-dimethylacetamide 16.7 wt% Chen et al 2011 Industrial polymer
Polyamide 6 Formic acid 10 wt% Wei et al 2006 Industrial polymer
Polyamide 612 Formic acid (Heated) 10% Heikkila et al 2008 Industrial polymer
Polyamide 4,6
Mw 60,000
Formic acid: Acetic acid (1:1) 6 wt% Schoenmaker et al 2012 Industrial polymer
Polybutylene terephthalate Trifluoroacetic acid 4% w/w Catalani et al 2007 Industrial polymer
Polycarbonate (PC) N,N Dimethyl formamide : tetrahydrofuran (1:1) 10 wt% Schreuder-Gibson et al 2002 Industrial polymer
Polyetherimide Dimethylacetamide : tetrahydrofuran (1:1) 12 % Scarlet et al 2012 Industrial polymer
Polyetherketone cardo N,N-dimethylformamide 20 wt% Zhang 2010 Industrial polymer
Polyethersulfone
Mw: 53,500 g/mol, polydispersity index (PDI): 2.88
N,N-Dimethyl formamide 26 wt% Yoon et al 2009 Industrial polymer
Polyethylene, Low Density, Melt flow index: 2 g/10 min Melt NA Deng et al 2009 Industrial polymer
poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) with 44% ethylene Dimethyl formamide 15 w/w % Keulder 2013 Industrial polymer
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 50% Trifluoroacetic acid : 50% Methylene chloride 10wt% Kim et al 2004 Industrial polymer
Polyhydroxystyrene (See Polyvinyl phenol) - - - -
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
Mw 350 kDa
Tetrahydrofuran : N,N-dimethylformamide (1:1) 7.5 wt% Charrizales et al 2008 Industrial polymer
Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) Deionized water 1 wt% Wang et al 2014 Industrial polymer
Polypropylene, Syndiotactic, melt index: 4.5 g/10 min at 230 degree C with a load 2.16 kg cyclohexane, acetone, and dimethylformamide (80/10/10 by weight ratio) at 60 degree C 5 wt% (electrospin at room temperature) Lee et al 2009 Industrial polymer
Polypyrrole [(PPy3)+ (DEHS)-]x N,N-dimethyl formamide Not stated Chronakis et al 2006 Industrial polymer
Polysulfone (PSU)
Mn 26,000
N,N-dimethylformamide 20% w/v Gopal et al 2007 Industrial polymer
Polystyrene (PS) N,N-Dimethylformamide : Tetrahydrofuran (4:1 v/v) 25% w/v Darko et al 2013 Industrial polymer
Poly(styrene-co-methacrylic acid), mole ratio of 5:1 and 10:1 N,N-Dimethylformamide : Tetrahydrofuran (4:1 v/v) 13 wt% Chigome S 2012 Others
Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide), mole ratio of 5:1 and 10:1 N,N-Dimethylformamide : Tetrahydrofuran (4:1 v/v) 20 wt% Chigome S 2012 Others
Poly(styrene-co-p-sodium styrene sulphonate), mole ratio of 10:1 and 15:1 N,N-Dimethylformamide : Tetrahydrofuran (4:1 v/v) 10 wt% Chigome S 2012 Others
Polyurethane (PU) N,N Dimethyl formamide 10 wt% Schreuder-Gibson et al 2002 Industrial polymer
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
Mw 70000-100000
Water heated at 80 oC 10 - 15 wt% Rodoplu et al 2012 Industrial polymer
Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)
Mw 140,000
Methylene chloride (MC) 10 wt% Kim et al 2006 Industrial polymer
Polyvinyl butyral
Tetrahydrofuran : Dimethylsulfoxide (8:2) 8 wt% Lubasova et al 2011 Industrial polymer
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Mw 106 kDa
Tetrahydrofuran : N,N-dimethylformamide (1:1) 11 wt% Charrizales et al 2008 Industrial polymer
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)
Mw 1,300kDa
Ethanol 10 wt% Yuya et al 2010 Industrial polymer
Polyvinyl phenol
Mw 100kDa
Tetrahydrofuran 20% w/v Kenawy et al 2002 Industrial polymer
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) N,N-dimethyl acetamide 25wt% Choi et al 2004 Industrial polymer
poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) Acetone and N,N-dimethylacetamide (7/3, w/w) 16 wt% Raghavan et al 2010 Industrial polymer
poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) dimethylformamide / acetone (3:2, v/v) 21 w/w Persano et al 2013 Industrial polymer
Silicone acetone/xylene (1:1) 17 wt% Park et al 2014 Industrial polymer
Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) hexafluoroisopropanol 6% Owida et al 2011 Industrial polymer
508 medical glue (N-octyl-2-cyanoacrylate and a little medical PMMA additive) None Not applicable Jiang et al 2014 Others
Asphaltene Toluene 40 wt% Natarajan et al 2011 Others
bis-(UPy-U)-poly(e-caprolactone) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol 17 wt% Appel 2011 Others
Poly (2 - methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) Ethanol 5 wt% Maeda T et al 2014 Others
Poly(butylene-carbonate), Mn = 7.0105 Da, PDI=1.77 Formic acid 25 wt% Gu et al 2014 Others
Poly(dimethylsiloxane-b-vinyl pyrrolidone), Mw 5.1 kDa Chloroform 23 wt% Keranov et al 2013 Others
Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide Water 10% w/v Azarbayjani et al 2010 Others
Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-co-vinylpyrrolidone Water 10 wt% Salehi et al 2013 Others
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane - poly(carbonate-urea) urethane Dimethylacetamide 20% w/w Gupta et al 2007 Others
Poly(L-glutamic acid 4-co-L-tyrosine), 20-50 kDa Water 50% w/v or 14 mM polymer Haynie et al 2012 Others
Poly(L-ornithine), 153.5 kDa Water 40% w/v or 2 mM polymer Haynie et al 2012 Others
Poly(o-methoxyaniline) tetrahydrofuran (THF) / dimethylformamide (DMF) (50:50 v/v) 4 wt% Yeh and Yeh 2013 Others
Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate), 420 kD NaCl solution 1:1 v/v ratio in aqueous 0.25 M NaCl Emerick E et al 2013 Others
Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline), 50,000 g/mol Melt NA Hochleitner et al 2014 Others
Polymer Solvent Concentration References Category
Published date: 12 Feb 2014
Last updated: 12 Feb 2015
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